Rightful payment under s 145 of the indian contract act essay

We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy. The Act defines the term "contract" as an agreement enforceable by law2. In other words, it is a legally enforceable and binding agreement, which is voluntarily entered into between two or more competent parties, for consideration and with mutual obligations.

Rightful payment under s 145 of the indian contract act essay

Mesopotamia Ancient Sumerian bas-relief portrait depicting the poetess Enheduanna Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own, sell, and inherit property. Women in ancient Egypt In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class.

Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, and women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contractsbe executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, and adopt children.

Women in India Women during the early Vedic period [7] enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Women in Greece Respectable Athenian women were expected to involve themselves in domestic tasks such as washing clothes left ; in reality, many worked right.

Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Until marriage, women were under the guardianship of their father or other male relative.

Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios. As women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman ever acquired citizenship in ancient Athens.

This separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeionwhile looking after the duties in the home and having very little exposure with the male world.

This was also to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave, cook and some knowledge of money.

As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. He argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.

Yale Law Journal - Beyond the Indian Commerce Clause

According to Aristotle the labour of women added no value because "the art of household management is not identical with the art of getting wealth, for the one uses the material which the other provides". They also saw marriage as a moral companionship between equals rather than a biological or social necessity, and practiced these views in their lives as well as their teachings.

The Stoics adopted the views of the Cynics and added them to their own theories of human nature, thus putting their sexual egalitarianism on a strong philosophical basis. Women in ancient Rome Roman law, similar to Athenian law, was created by men in favor of men.

Roman societyhowever, was patriarchaland women could not vote, hold public officeor serve in the military. During the Roman Republicthe mother of the Gracchus brothers and of Julius Caesar were noted as exemplary women who advanced the career of their sons.

During the Imperial periodwomen of the emperor's family could acquire considerable political power, and were regularly depicted in official art and on coinage.

By 27—14 BCE the ius trium liberorum "legal right of three children" granted symbolic honors and legal privileges to a woman who had given birth to three children, and freed her from any male guardianship.

Rightful payment under s 145 of the indian contract act essay

She then became subject to her husband's potestas, though to a lesser degree than their children. This arrangement was one of the factors in the independence Roman women enjoyed.

A married woman retained ownership of any property she brought into the marriage. The rape of a slave could be prosecuted only as damage to her owner's property. Adulterywhich had been a private family matter under the Republic, was criminalized, [46] and defined broadly as an illicit sex act stuprum that occurred between a male citizen and a married woman, or between a married woman and any man other than her husband.Indian Contract Act – CHAPTER II OF CONTRACTS, VOIDABLE CONTRACTS AND VOID AGREEMENTS Section What agreements are contracts All agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of parties competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and are not hereby expressly declared to .

This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Damages under indian contract act.

The Indian Contract Act, prescribes the law relating to contracts in India. The Act was passed by British India and is based on the principles of English Common r-bridal.com is applicable to all the states of India except the state of Jammu and r-bridal.com determines the circumstances in which promises made by the parties to a contract shall be legally .

Women's rights activism in Canada during the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, and recognition of women as "persons" under the law.

A summary of the key provisions of the Indian Contract Act and a link to the full text of the Act itself.

India a normal day to day trading and regular dealing to have a valid and effective contract and it need to be made affective under the Contract act. Get Textbooks on Google Play. Rent and save from the world's largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.

Indian Contract Act, Essay