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While the majority of this population is employed in agriculture, the non-farm sector comprising mostly artisans form the second largest livelihood group in rural India. This sector is primarily a home based cottage industry, operating in product specific clusters and the workforce includes the members of the family and the use of existing indigenous skills which are passed from generation to generation.
Largely unorganized and fragmented in character they often originate and exist in areas where unemployment and under-employment are widespread. Many such occupations are the sole domain of the women in the household helping them to achieve social and financial independence without having to leave their homes.
Several factors constrain the preservation and promotion of these traditional livelihood streams the biggest among them being their inability to understand and link with markets.
Being fragmented, unorganized and often isolated, these artisans are unable to connect and leverage mainstream markets. To such degree, the economic goals of an entrepreneur and the social goals of rural development are more strongly interlinked than in urban areas.
Role of technology Across the world Information Technology IT has come Ict for rural areas be recognized as a powerful enabler for advancing economic and social development through the creation of new types of economic activity, employment opportunities and the enhancement of networking and participation and a potent force in reducing marginalization.
Best and Sylvia G. In reality, however, this great promise IT holds for growth and development has remained far out of the reach of most rural women and the advantages it has so far bestowed on the urban Indian woman have not been seen by her rural sister on the other side of the digital divide.
Using and benefiting from IT requires education, training, affordable access to the technology, information relevant to the user and the building of an enabling environment most of which the rural women still do not have. With respect to mobile technology, however, the story has been remarkably different with high levels of acceptance across society at large.
With newer, smarter technologies converging IT with communications C and voice, video and web becoming available on personal phones, one sees the possibility of ICT Information and Communication Technologies overcoming the deficiencies inherent in conventional IT and consequently its acceptance and use by rural women.
Mobile applications on such smart phones have gone a step further in fashioning this technology for specific use by this group. Applications can be developed so that they can address a specific purpose, with a pertinent user interface and with local vernacular content thus making them technologically easier to navigate and operate compared to traditional internet sites.
This ongoing research study of rural women entrepreneurs and their collectives was designed to study the adoption of ICT by individual entrepreneurs and the collectives as a whole and the factors that influence such adoption and the constraints that keep ICT from becoming a livelihood enabler for these women.
In creating addressability for these women, it has proved to be both a social leveller and an economic enabler.
Internet penetration in urban India was Rural women have been quick to realize the power of ICT and the benefits it can bring them. So despite the usual constraints of frequent power cuts, poor signal strengths, costs associated with handsets and connectivity, language and literacy issues and lack of training, women have taken to using ICT especially social media wherever and however they can.
They have come to recognize that ICT saves them time, effort, travel and energy.
Whether under peer pressure or influenced by their children, they are happy to be part of the new digital economy and being able to access wider markets without leaving the security of their home villages or flouting socio-cultural norms.
Concerns While ICT has piqued the curiosity of the rural citizen and more particularly rural women, their demand for service is far from being met. Even with private service providers, the coverage is still woefully inadequate in the interiors leaving even vanilla mobile voice telephony a distant dream for many villagers.
Even so Bharat Net covers only the middle mile and the onus for delivering last mile access it is hoped will be taken up by private players. Recommendations There are several steps that policy makers and local governments can take to address this deficiency: Technology solutions within the larger community wireless space can be considered for the digital inclusion of these remote entrepreneurs and the communities they live in.
The use of unlicensed spectrum for such solutions would improve the affordability The role that civil society organizations can play in building absorptive capacity vis-a-vis broadband has not been fully explored.
There are examples of NGOs in remote rural areas who have invested in generating solar power and when sold back to the grid the power becomes available not only o the members associated with them and to the larger community in their area of operation.
A similar model can be looked at for broadband deployment, maintenance and utilization by such NGOs. A bouquet of basic ICT based services should be made obligatory for every village. Here again if private players are uninterested, the support of local NGOs can be enlisted by the government in building the necessary convergence between the many stake holders in the geography in order to optimize bandwidth demand and utilization The appropriateness of the solution and the technology especially that of the hand sets is important for user acceptance.
In some states like Jharkhand the government has started giving smart phones to the heads of SHGs and providing them some level of training for its use and this has been a welcome move. It is hoped that this study will shed light on the actions necessary to promote and encourage ICT adoption and usage by rural women entrepreneurs as a livelihood enabler.
Achieving gender equality through digital inclusion, therefore, is perhaps an imperative for national growth. Also published on Medium.THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GHANA’S RURAL DEVELOPMENT THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GHANA’S RURAL DEVELOPMENT M.S.
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In rural areas, where isolation and poor infrastructure services are common, access to telecommunications can play an important role in enhancing social and economic development. At the same time, the program has created significant income-earning opportunities for Village Phone operators, who are mostly women.
ICT In Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation Information Technology Essay for understanding ICT-poverty connections and possibilities (Spence ).
Some of the possible applications of ICT in Rural Areas are: Poor network infrastructure in rural areas is also one of the obstacles for IT in agriculture because the Internet is an.