Bernecker and Dretske argue that "no epistemologist since Gettier has seriously and successfully defended the traditional view. Belief revision An extensive amount of scientific research and philosophical discussion exists around the modification of beliefs, which is commonly referred to as belief revision. One process of belief revision is Bayesian updating and is often referenced for its mathematical basis and conceptual simplicity. However, such a process may not be representative for individuals whose beliefs are not easily characterized as probabilistic.
Such beliefs and practices are often subsumed under the umbrella of "Chinese popular religion. These traditions, especially Buddhism, included the idea of personal cultivation for the purpose of living an ideal life and, as a consequence, attaining some kind of afterlife salvation, such as immortality, enlightenment, or birth in a heavenly realm.
However, individual salvation played a small role in most popular religions. In typical local variants of popular religion, the Example of beliefs was on 1 passing from this world into an ancestral realm that in key ways mirrored this world and 2 the interactions between living persons and their ancestors.
Basic Beliefs and Assumptions In every human society one can find manifestations of the human desire for some kind of continuance beyond death. In the modern West, much of human experience has been with religious theories of continuance that stress the fate of the individual, often conceived as a discrete spiritual "self" or "soul.
Second, because of the obligations inculcated in children and grandchildren, one could assume they would care for one in old age and in the afterlife.
Indeed, afterlife care involved the most significant and complex rituals in Chinese religious life, including funerals, burials, mourning practices, and rites for ancestors. Finally, there was a stress on mutual obligations between the living and the dead; in other words, an emphasis on the same principle of reciprocity that governed relations among the living members of a Chinese community.
It was assumed that the dead could influence the quality of life for those still in this world—either for good or for ill. On the one hand, proper burial, careful observance of mourning practices, and ongoing offerings of food and gifts for ancestors assured their continued aid.
Ancestral souls for whom no one Example of beliefs would become "hungry ghosts" eguiwhich might attack anyone in the community. Royal ancestors, whose worship was the special responsibility of the reigning emperor, could aid or harm people throughout the empire, depending on whether or not the emperor upheld ritual obligations to his ancestors.
But what is the nature of the ancestral state? What kind of rituals for the dead have been performed by most Chinese? And under what circumstances have individual Chinese sought something more than an afterlife as a comfortable and proud ancestor with loving and successful descendants; that is, some kind of personal salvation?
This may well have been the main factor in the development of beliefs in dual and multiple souls. Late in the Zhou dynasty — B.
Philosophers applied the dichotomy to soul theory. Lacking any absolute distinction between physical and spiritual, they considered the yin soul po as more material, and the yang soul hun as more ethereal. In practice, the po was linked to the body and the grave. For some, this meant there were two hun, just as, for others, there might be multiple po.
One common view included the idea of three hun and seven po. These multiple soul theories were among the factors in popular religion that mitigated widespread acceptance of belief in salvation of the individual soul. At the same time, however, multiple soul theories helped Chinese to manage contrasting perceptions of ancestral souls as benevolent or malevolent, for example and to provide an explanatory framework for the differing rituals of the domestic, gravesite, and clan hall cults for ancestors.
While the intent of all these rites was clear—to comfort ancestors rather than to suffer their wrath—the nature of ancestral existence was relatively undefined.
Generally speaking, the world of the ancestors was conceived as a murky, dark realm, a "yin" space yinjian. While not clear on the exact details, Chinese considered the world of departed spirits similar to the world of the living in key ways.
They believed residents of the other realm need money and sustenance, must deal with bureaucrats, and should work with the help of the living to improve their fate.
For example, the "bureaucratic" dimension of the underworld was enhanced by visions of the Buddhist Ten Courts of Hell, at which judges meted out punishments according to karmic principles that required recompense for every good or evil deed.
Moreover, regardless of whether or not they followed Buddhism in other ways, most Chinese embraced the doctrines of karma retribution for past actions and samsara cyclical existence in their thinking about life and death.
These doctrines helped people to explain the fate of residents in the realms of the living and the dead, not to mention interactions between them. For example, the ghost stories that fill Chinese religious tracts as well as secular literature typically present ghosts as vehicles of karmic retribution against those evildoers who escaped punishment by worldly authorities perhaps in a former lifetime.
While reading such stories often has been just a casual diversion, performing rites to assure that departed ancestors do not become wandering ghosts has been a serious matter. Rites for the Dead Over the course of Chinese history, classical texts on ritual and commentaries on them had increasing influence on the practice of rites for the dead.
The influence of these texts resulted in widespread standardization of funeral rites in particular and rites for the dead in general. According to the cultural anthropologist James Watson, standardized funeral rites became a marker of "Chineseness" for Han ethnically Chinese people in their interactions with other ethnic groups as they spread into new territories.
In his article, "The Structure of Chinese Funerary Rites," Watson identifies nine elements of standardized funeral rites: While burial customs were more subject to local variation than funeral rites as such, throughout China there was a preference for burial over alternative means of dealing with the corpse.
In modern China, especially under the Communist Party sinceChinese have turned to cremation more often. Traditionally, the corpse, or at least the bones, represented powers that lasted beyond death and could affect the fate of living relatives.
For this reason, the use of an expert in feng-shui Chinese geomancy was needed to determine the time, place, and orientation of the burial of a corpse.
This usage was in line with the aforementioned belief that the po, which lingered at the grave, was more physical in character than the hun soul s. Its importance is underlined by the fact that the practice is being revived in China after years of condemnation by Communist officials.Types Delusions are categorized as either bizarre or non-bizarre and as either mood-congruent or mood-incongruent.
A bizarre delusion is a delusion that is very strange and completely implausible for the person's culture; an example of a bizarre delusion would be that aliens have removed the affected person's brain. Doctrine (from Latin: doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief r-bridal.com etymological Greek analogue is "catechism"..
Often the word doctrine specifically . Examples of moral beliefs include views on how to treat others, beliefs about sex, religion and personal behavior and strategies to respect and forgive individuals. A person's views on personal hygiene, etiquette and language are also examples of moral beliefs.
Ethics play a key role in a person's. About Us. Forest Hill is a come as you are kind of church. We believe that God meets each one of us – right where we are, just as we are. Our purpose is to help people know Christ, grow in Christ and go for Christ.
Did a historical Jesus exist? by Jim Walker. originated: 12 June / additions: 22 Apr.
My Beliefs Professor Christensen’s personal beliefs have had a profound impact on the way he conducts his life. He shares his beliefs with others so they may know and understand him better, and to encourage them to lead .