Overview[ edit ] Portugal had been run by an authoritarian dictatorship the Estado Novoor New Statewhich was considered by many[ who? It started as a professional class  protest of Portuguese Armed Forces captains against a decree law: Portugal's new regime pledged itself to end the colonial wars and began negotiations with the African independence movements. By the end ofPortuguese troops had been withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea and the latter had become a UN member state.
Republic of Cuba Orientation Identification. Christopher Columbus landed on the island in and named it Juana after Prince Juan, the heir apparent to the throne of Castille.
The island lies about ninety miles south of the Florida Keys. The area of the country is 48, square milessquare kilometers. About a third of the island is mountainous, consisting of the Guaniguanco chain in the western province of Pinar del Rio, the Escambrey in the south-central province of Las Villas, and the largest system, the Sierra Maestra, in the western province of Oriente.
Since the European conquest, the western third of the island has exercised military, political, economic, and cultural dominance. The capital is Havana on the northern coast of the western third of the island.
The second largest city is Santiago de Cuba in the province of Oriente, where the Roman Catholic archbishopric was established in the colonial era. Although Santiago sometimes is called the "second capital," the economic importance of the port of Havana has given it a hugely disproportionate role in the definition of the national culture.
Recent population estimates range from At least 50 percent of the population is classified as mulatto mixed African and European descentalthough the cultural privilege assigned to whiteness probably causes many mulattos to minimize their African heritage.
Thirty-seven percent of the population claims to be exclusively white, and 11 percent is classified as "negro.
In the African population was larger than that of whites. Although the larger slave-holding plantations were in the west, escaped and emancipated slaves often fled east, where they could more easily hide or establish themselves on small unclaimed plots of land in Oriente.
Thus, it is there that Afrocuban art, religion, and music were most strongly expressed and the cultural movement "afrocubanismo" began.
Nearly all Cubans speak Spanish exclusively. The dialect is similar to that in the other Hispanic Caribbean islands, although the rhythmic speaking and the use of highly expressive hand gestures are distinctly Cuban.
Languages spoken by the indigenous population are extinct. French was spoken for a short time by slave-holding European refugees from the Haitian revolution but this has since died out. The three major symbols of national identity have arisen from the three struggles for independence.
The national anthem was composed at the start of the first war for independence, the Ten Years War It is a call to arms that evokes the image of the peasants of the town of Bayamo in the eastern heartland. The second national symbol is the flag.
It has a white star imposed on a red triangle, modeled on the triangular symbol of the Masonic lodges in which the struggle against Spain was organized.
The triangle is imposed on Cuba three blue stripes alternating with two white stripes. The third symbol of national pride and independence is the flag of the 26th July Movement, which contains the black initials M26J Movimiento 26 de Julio on a field of red.
Afrocuban music and dance were also appropriated as symbols of the nation beginning inwhen the United States invaded the island, and especially after the triumph of the Revolution in History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The Cuban nation has arisen from a history of colonial and imperial domination.
Formal colonial status under Spain was ended only by the invasion by the United States inwhen military and corporate interests made the island a de facto colony of the United States.
After the triumph of the Revolution on 1 JanuaryCuba became truly independent for the first time since the colonial invasion of The Pre-Columbian population was about , consisting mostly of Arawak Taino and Sub-Taino in the central and eastern region and a few Ciboneys also called Guanahacabibes who had fled the advance of the Arawak and moved west to Pinar del Rio.
Indigenous lands were quickly distributed to European conquistadors and gold prospectors, and indigenous persons were enslaved and given to Europeans for use in mining and agricultural projects a system called the encomienda.
Indigenous people who resisted were murdered. Malnutrition, overwork, suicide, and brutality made the indigenous population virtually extinct within fifty years of the conquest.
The indigenous past was largely abandoned and forgotten, save only a few cultural survivals in language and architecture.Apr 26, · MASAYA, Nicaragua — The revolutionary, many Nicaraguans say, is suddenly facing a revolution of his own.
The insurrection that led to the rise of President Daniel Ortega and his Cold War. Don Ricardo and Don Cleto differed little in political economic philosophies. Both were classical liberals. This did not stop them from waging .
The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal on 25 April which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
The revolution started as a military coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA) . three blue stripes alternating with two white stripes. The third symbol of national pride and independence is the flag of the 26th July Movement, which contains the .
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