A question of fairness

In many… Historical development Contract law is the product of a business civilization. It will not be found, in any significant degree, in noncommercial societies. Most primitive societies have other ways of enforcing the commitments of individuals; for example, through ties of kinship or by the authority of religion.

A question of fairness

Definition of fairness

No matter how much we may try to ignore it, human communication always takes place in a context, through a medium, and among individuals and groups who are situated historically, politically, economically, and socially. This state of affairs is neither bad nor good.

Bias is a small word that identifies the collective influences of the entire context of a message. Politicians are certainly biased and overtly so. They belong to parties and espouse policies and ideologies. And while they may think their individual ideologies are simply common sense, they understand that they speak from political positions.

Journalists, too, speak from political positions but usually not overtly so. The journalistic ethics of objectivity and fairness are strong influences on the profession.

But journalistic objectivity is not the pristine objectivity of philosophy. Instead, a journalist attempts to be objective by two methods: As we all know, the ethical heights journalists set for themselves are not always reached.

But, all in all, like politics, it is an honorable profession practiced, for the most part, by people trying to do the right thing. The press is often thought of as a unified voice with a distinct bias right or left depending on the critic. This simplistic thinking fits the needs of ideological struggle, but is hardly useful in coming to a better understanding of what is happening in the world.

I believe journalism is an under-theorized practice.

Historical development

In other words, journalists often do what they do without reflecting upon the meaning of the premises and assumptions that support their practice. I say this as a former journalist. I think we may begin to reflect upon journalistic practice by noticing that the press applies a narrative structure to ambiguous events in order to create a coherent and causal sense of events.

For citizens and information consumers which are one in the same todayit is important to develop the skill of detecting bias. Bias does not suggest that a message is false or unfair. You should apply other techniques in the Rhetorica Critical Meter to determine if a message is fallacious.

With what social, political, or professional groups is the speaker identified? Does the speaker have anything to gain personally from delivering the message? Who is paying for the message?

Where does the message appear?

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What is the bias of the medium? Who stands to gain?Customer Service Excellence ® STANDARD. The Customer Service Excellence ® standard aims to make a tangible difference to service users by encouraging provider organisations to focus on their individual needs and preferences. Teaching guides for character education.

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—Zadie Smith, White Teeth, () "I have a good relationship with both Eddie and David. Aug 08,  · If you’re a working journalist and you believe that Donald J.

A question of fairness

Trump is a demagogue playing to the nation’s worst racist and nationalistic tendencies, that he cozies up to anti-American. John Rawls (—) John Rawls was arguably the most important political philosopher of the twentieth century.

A question of fairness

He wrote a series of highly influential articles in the s and ’60s that helped refocus Anglo-American moral and political philosophy on substantive problems about what we ought to do.

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