For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more. How did this happen?
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession. By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now.
Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church.
Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.
He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia. Martin Luther and the beginning[ edit ] See also: The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatoryparticular judgmentand the authority of the pope.
He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate.
Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanismsometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches.
After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism ; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of — swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the Black Company of Florian Geiera knight from Giebelstadt who joined the peasants in the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy.
Zwinglian and Lutheran ideas had influence with preachers within the regions that the Peasants' War occurred and upon works such as the Twelve Articles. Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe.
In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German. The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press.
From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church.
From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas.
Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the German Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas.
Lucas Cranach the Elder —the great painter patronised by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.Dec 02, · The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would.
The Protestant Reformation (Europe, 16th Century). Prior to the Protestant Reformation, pretty much everyone in Europe was a Roman protestant reformation Catholic The Protestant Reformation is a term used to describe a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church.
To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that occurred in Western Europe during the 16th century that resulted in a divide in Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants. This movement "created a North-South split in Europe, where generally Northern countries became Protestant, while Southern countries remained Catholic.".
The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin.