Chlordane Save Chlordane is a chemical compound and also part of a similarly named pesticide mixture resulting from synthesis main components- heptachlor, chlordane, and nonachlor.
Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults.
We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study.
Based on self-reported dietary data, the greatest exposure to pesticides from foods included in this analysis were tomatoes, peaches, apples, peppers, grapes, lettuce, broccoli, strawberries, spinach, dairy, pears, green beans, and celery.
Conclusions Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods meat, dairy, and fish to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.
Dietary toxic exposure prevention, Nutritional toxicology, Organic food, Cancer risk, Chemical contaminants in food Background Food may be the primary route of exposure to contaminants from multiple chemical classes such as metals mercury, lead, arsenicpersistent organic pollutants POPs dioxin, DDT, dieldrin, chlordaneand pesticides chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan.
Food toxicology assesses exposure to contaminants from typical diets and their related health outcomes. Though food-borne toxic contaminants are a concern for all ages, they are of greatest concern for children, who are disproportionately impacted because they are still developing and have greater intake of food and fluids relative to their bodyweight.
Pediatric problems that have been linked to preventable environmental toxin exposures include cancer, asthma, lead poisoning, neurobehavioral disorders, learning and developmental disabilities, and birth defects [ 12 ].
Dietary practices influence exposure to pesticides, metals, persistent organic pollutants, and industrial pollutants through consumption patterns, food packaging, and preparation methods. A diet high in fish and animal products, for example, results in greater exposure to persistent organic compounds and metals than does a plant-based diet because these compounds bioaccumulate up the food chain.
Besides varying by types of food eaten, exposure from our diet depends on consumption frequency and amount consumed, as well as growing conditions of crops such as pesticide use, soil characteristics, and water source. The way in which food is cooked, processed, and packaged may introduce chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalates, and acrylamide that are not present in the raw food [ 3 - 5 ].
Because bisphenol A has been detected in baby food, this compound has been banned in the production of plastic baby bottles in Canada, the European Union, Denmark, and a growing number of U. The implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act of FQPA has resulted in significant enhancements in public use databases reporting on levels of toxic compounds in food [ 6 ].
Environmental Protection Agency to consider aggregate risk from exposure to a pesticide through multiple sources and cumulative risk from exposure to pesticides that have common mechanisms of toxicity.
To date, many studies of dietary exposure to harmful substances focus on a single chemical or compound, for example chlordane or mercury [ 78 ].
Still needed are exposure assessments that comprehensively consider the broad array of food contaminants found in a typical diet. Aggregate risk exposure comprehensively considers the multiple toxins to which people are exposed on a daily basis throughout the life span, including during sensitive developmental periods such as pregnancy and childhood.
In a recent analysis of pregnant women in the U. A number of pesticides and industrial or household compounds from various chemical classes are categorized as endocrine disrupting contaminants EDCs because they exhibit high potency in very small amounts and are capable of disrupting reproductive, developmental, and other hormonally mediated physiological functions [ 10 ].
Many EDCs are also categorized as POPs— including compounds such as banned pesticides and unwanted byproducts of industrial processes and waste incineration that accumulate and persist in the environment and the human body [ 11 ]. Studies that assess multiple exposures improve our understanding of how different compounds may act synergistically to cause greater damage than would be incurred by a single exposure.
Three previous studies present child-specific dietary and contaminant data [ 13 - 15 ] while others present adult data only [ 16 - 19 ]. Previous articles present data on food contaminant levels both estimated [ 13 - 1618 - 21 ] and measured [ 172223 ].
Here, we estimate, for three different age groups, exposures for which food serves as a main source. Based on parent- or self-reported food intake for children, adults with young children, and older adults, we derived exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds.
We also estimated which foods contributed most to these exposures based on the frequency and quantities eaten, and identified compounds that are estimated to exceed non-cancer and cancer benchmarks and therefore would pose health risks of particular concern.
Environmental Protection Agency US EPA for the purpose of examining behaviors in three domains that influence human exposure to environmental chemicals: Participants were recruited from 21 counties in California and from two types of households: Results are presented by age group: This report utilizes the food frequency data to quantify intake of selected dietary toxic chemical contaminants.
Determining food consumption rates Food consumption data used for this analysis were collected during the SUPERB first-year telephone-administered survey inconducted in English and Spanish. Trained interviewers administered an abbreviated instrument based on a standard food frequency questionnaire FFQ ; we used an abbreviated version because our interest was not in total nutritional intake but rather sources of contaminants.
This version has not been validated specifically, although the original survey has been validated [ 25 ].
We asked about the frequencies and amounts of foods typically eaten in the last year; adults answered for themselves and their children. We reduced food items to 44 to cover key foods and food groups associated with a higher risk of exposure to specified toxins and classes of toxic compounds selected a priori.
Contaminants were selected to represent different chemical classes, food groups, and health effects: For acrylamide, we included foods for which high levels were reported, based on an analysis that combined Food and Drug Administration FDA data on acrylamide levels in U.
Department of Agriculture and other organizations on food consumption rates [ 26 ]. For pesticides, we focused on fruits and vegetables shown to have the highest residues in analyses conducted by the Environmental Working Group EWGwhich ranks pesticide contamination for popular fruits and vegetables based on an analysis of 87, tests of these foods, conducted between and by the U.
Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration [ 27 ]. For pesticide and other compounds that bioaccumulate or are persistent, we collected animal-based items, i. Because public use datasets with estimated exposure levels for antibiotics and hormones in food were not available from the FDA, we did not pursue these two classes of compounds.DDT was the first of the modern synthetic insecticides, developed in the s.
It helped control diseases such as typhus and malaria. Enviromental concerns led to its cancellation in the s. It still has limited indoor use in Africa to prevent malaria.
Chlordane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a non-systemic contact insecticide for lawns and crops. Actually a complex mixture of isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and by-products, chlordane is used in termite and ant control, and as a protective treatment for underground cables.
From about until it was banned, chlordane was used widely as a spray to protect structures against termites and to control insects on lawns, turf, ornamental plants, agricultural crops, and in drainage ditches.
Environmental Protection Agency Essay Examples. A Description of Chlordane as Among the First Chemical Banned By the Environmental Protection Agency. 1, words. 2 pages. The Reasoning Behind the Food Quality Protection Act of .
Environmental Protection Agency hearings on the chlordane issue are still rolling on, but all in- were banned, substitutes came to light. For example, when aldrin, the Environmental Protection Agency for CGA and is plan-. A Description of Dolly Created By Dr.
Ian Wilmut. words.
|Chlordane | C10H6Cl8 - PubChem||By chlorinating this by-product, persistent and potent insecticides were easily and cheaply produced.|
|IARC Group 2B carcinogens||Chlordane was the most commonly used member of the cyclodiene family of chlorinated insecticides that includes aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Depending on the degree of purity, chlordane may vary from a brown liquid to a white, crystalline solid.|
1 page. A Description of Chlordane as Among the First Chemical Banned By the Environmental Protection Agency. 1, words. 2 pages. An Analysis of the Characteristics of Cell Division Types.